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Eye Disease Management

During your eye exam, you will be carefully evaluated for many eye diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts, macular degeneration and retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy.   As with other diseases, early detection, and y can make the difference not only in your vision, but also in your overall health and well-being.


Common Eye Diseases


A cataract is a cloudy or opaque area in the normally clear lens of the eye. Depending upon its size and location, it can interfere with normal vision.

Cataracts are diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam.

This examination may include:

  • Patient history to determine if vision difficulties are limiting daily activities and other general health concerns affecting vision.

  • Visual acuity measurement to determine to what extent a cataract may be limiting clear distance and near vision.

  • Refraction to determine the need for changes in an eyeglass or contact lens prescription.

  • Evaluation of the lens under high magnification and illumination to determine the extent and location of any cataracts.

  • Evaluation of the retina of the eye through a dilated pupil.

  • Measurement of pressure within the eye.

  • Supplemental testing for color vision and glare sensitivity.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye.

Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include:

  • Seeing spots or floaters.

  • Blurred vision.

  • Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision.

  • Difficulty seeing well at night.

Diabetic retinopathy can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. Testing, with emphasis on evaluating the retina and macula, may include:

  • Patient history to determine vision difficulties, presence of diabetes, and other general health concerns that may be affecting vision.

  • Visual acuity measurements to determine how much central vision has been affected.

  • Refraction to determine if a new eyeglass prescription is needed.

  • Evaluation of the ocular structures, including the evaluation of the retina through a dilated pupil.

  • Measurement of the pressure within the eye.

Macular Degeneration

Macular Degeneration is an eye disease affecting the macula (the center of the light-sensitive retina at the back of the eye), causing loss of central vision.

In its early stages, the following signs of macular degeneration can go unnoticed.

  • The gradual loss of ability to see objects clearly.

  • The shape of objects appears distorted.

  • Straight lines look wavy or crooked.

  • Loss of clear color vision.

  • A dark or empty area in the center of vision.


If you are experiencing any of the above signs or symptoms, contact a doctor of optometry immediately for a comprehensive eye examination. Tests will determine if  you have macular degeneration or any other eye health problems.  Central vision that is lost to macular degeneration cannot be restored. However, low-vision devices, such as telescopic and microscopic lenses, can maximize existing vision.


Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders that lead to progressive damage to the optic nerve. It is characterized by loss of nerve tissue that results in progressive vision loss. 

Glaucoma is diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. Because glaucoma is a progressive disease, meaning it worsens over time, a change in the appearance of the optic nerve, a loss of nerve tissue, and a corresponding loss of vision confirm the diagnosis. Some optic nerves may resemble nerves with glaucoma, but the patients may have no other risk factors or signs of glaucoma. These patients should have routine comprehensive exams to monitor any changes.

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